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are both reared commercially and distributed internationally.The key role of bumblebees as pollinators is highlighted by losses in managed honeybee populations placing an increasing pollination burden on alternative pollinators [].

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Approximately one-quarter of the automated models (24%) were edited, usually only to correct start and stop codon usage and intron-exon boundaries using transcriptome and comparative evidence (see Additional file for details of these genes, along with gene information of species-specific gene names reported in some subsequent sections (for example, Bter_ or Bimp_)).

Analyses focusing on specific gene families and pathways identified additional issues with some automated predictions (see below, for example, chemoreceptors). Ortholog sets that are only found in particular lineages are likely to play important roles in lineage-specific biological traits, and thus deserve further attention.

Genomes of pollinators, such as bumblebees, will not only help understanding of the pollinator organisms themselves, but will also aid understanding of interactions between pollinators and plants [], hymenopteragenome.org), which provides Genome Browser capabilities and BLAST searches against scaffolds and all gene predictions of both bumblebee genomes.

Both genomes had high completeness as judged by presence of conserved gene sets (Additional file scaffolds from the 18 chromosomes with the addition of 11 unplaced scaffolds (average length, 2.34 Mb; median, 1.34 Mb; range, 0.7 kb to 13.65 Mb; total length, 220.2 Mb) are covered by 101 synteny blocks formed from 5 Mb) corroborates this.

Although rare overall, advanced eusociality has arisen twice in this group, once following the split of honeybee and bumblebee lineages (approximately 77 to 95 million years ago (mya)), and once following the split of stingless bee and bumblebee lineages (approximately 66 to 82 mya) [).

In comparison to honeybees, they have queen-worker caste differentiation based mainly on body size and physiology, annual colonies of hundreds rather than many thousands of individuals, and worker offspring that have lost the ability to mate, but can reproduce readily by laying haploid (male) eggs [ (c).The addition of the bumblebee genomes allowed for the identification of 38 orthologs specific to bees (], but 13 of the 24 orthologs in which domains could be found contained an olfactory receptor domain (IPR004117).Further, one bumblebee lineage specific gene ortholog (Ortho DB group: EOG6VDNJ0) has likely duplicated in .The four tribes of corbiculate bees, Apini, Meliponini, Bombini, and Euglossini, are thought to have shared a primitively eusocial ancestor.Subsequently, the Meliponini and Apini evolved advanced eusociality independently, while the predominantly solitary behavior of the Euglossini was secondarily derived [].and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms.

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