Theology of dating

In the words of Amos Wilder, the works share "a combination of simplicity and elevation which differs from the flexible discourse of Paul and from the more concrete vocabulary and formal features of the Synoptic Gospels." At the end of the 19th century, scholar Ernest De Witt Burton was able to write that, "the similarity in style, vocabulary and doctrine to the fourth gospel is, however, so clearly marked that there can be no reasonable doubt that the letter and the gospel are from the same pen." There are at least two principal arguments for this view.

This would indicate that the Gospel was known in Antioch before Ignatius' death (probably 107). 80 to 167) quotes from the letters of John, as does Justin Martyr (c. The earliest testimony to the author was that of Papias, preserved in fragmentary quotes in Eusebius's history of the Church. Eusebius says that two different Johns must be distinguished, John the Apostle, and John the Presbyter, with the Gospel assigned to the Apostle and the Book of Revelation to the presbyter.

Irenaeus was a disciple of Polycarp, thus in the second generation after the apostle.

In favor of the historical and eyewitness character of the Gospel, a few passages are cited.

John's chronology for the death of Jesus seems more realistic, because the Synoptic Gospels would have the trial before the Sanhedrin occurring on the first day of the Passover, which was a day of rest.

Schonfield agrees that the Gospel was the product of the Apostle's great age, but further identifies him as the Beloved Disciple of the Last Supper, and so believes that the Gospel is based on first hand witness, though decades later and perhaps through the assistance of a younger follower and writer, which may account for the mixture of Hebraicisms (from the Disciple) and Greek idiom (from the assistant).

Fredriksen sees the Fourth Gospel's unique explanation for Jesus' arrest and crucifixion as the most historically plausible: "The priests' motivation is clear and commonsensical: 'If we let [Jesus] go on..

Scholars such as Wellhausen, Wendt, and Spitta have argued that the fourth gospel is a Grundschrift or a, ".which had suffered interpolation before arriving at its canonical form; it was a unity as it stood." F. Baur (1792–1860) proposed that John was solely a work of synthesis of thesis-antithesis according to the Hegelian model—synthesis between the thesis of Judeo-Christianity (represented by Peter) and the antithesis of Gentile Christianity (represented by Paul).

He also cited in the epistles a synthesis with the opposing dualist forces of Gnosticism. The first certain witness to Johannine theology among the Fathers of the Church is in Ignatius of Antioch, whose Letter to the Philippians is founded on John 3:8 and alludes to John 10:7-9 and 14:6.

Llorene & Renard Romero Llorene is an MBA graduate from the Schulich School of Business and currently works in Marketing for Bell Mobility.

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